Fare-Free Public Transportation for the Elderly: Ridership and Welfare Impacts in Brazilian Metropolitan Areas
This paper investigates the impacts on welfare and travel behavior of a policy that
grants fare-free public transportation for the Brazilian elderly. To identify the effects
of the policy on mode demand, I explore that eligibility for fare exemption is based on age
thresholds that differ by gender and metropolitan region. Using data of travel behavior
from a series of household travel surveys, I estimate the policy impacts using a Regression
Discontinuity Design. Results indicate a significant and positive impact of approximately
22% on total public transit ridership among policy beneficiaries.
Affirmative Action Policy in Brazilian Universities: Effects on the Enrollment of Targeted Groups
With Mary Arends-Kuenning
This paper investigates how the adoption of affirmative action policies for college admission affected the enrollment
of students from socioeconomically disadvantaged groups in Brazil. We explore the time heterogeneity of policy adoption
by Brazilian Universities to identify the policy effects while accounting for potentially confounding unobservables.
The results of our analysis indicate that the adoption of affirmative action led to an increase in the enrollment
of students from groups explicitly targeted by each policy, particularly public high-school students and Blacks.
As for the heterogeneities of policy impacts, larger effects were observed for more competitive and more
prestigious academic programs. Lastly, we found that affirmative action policies with explicit racial criteria
led to an increase in the enrollment of Black students; meanwhile, universities that adopted Race-Blind policies
witnessed no significant changes in the racial profile of their admitted students.